Farriery Articles

Mark to provide content

Articles

Author: Caldwell MN
Keywords: Farriery; hoof balance; geometric proportions; trimming; horseshoe

Summary:
A true or accurate definition for the term ‘hoof balance ‘does not exist. The meaning of ‘hoof balance’ has been debated by hoof care professionals for decades resulting in the lack of a standardized approach to trimming the equine foot.
The use of external reference points for determining ‘hoof balance’ in the unshod or shod horse has been described by others yet these points lack scientific documentation.

Trimming and shoeing to geometric proportions concentric to the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal DIP joint is thought to influence the biomechanical efficiency of the foot. In equine practice, there is a need for hoof care professionals to utilize a consistent method of hoof trimming that will accurately assess the orientation of internal anatomical landmarks from external reference points.

The standardised hoof trimming and ‘mapping” protocol described in this paper will allow consistent accurate identification of the vertical location of the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal joint. Accurate location of the centre of rotation will provide clinicians will not only a consistent guideline to apply the appropriate trim but will also aid in the correct placement of the horseshoe.

Author: Newton R, Kissick K, Allan L, and Caldwell M.N.

School of Veterinary Nursing and Farriery Science, Myerscough College, University of Central Lancashire, Bilsborrow, Preston, Lancashire, UK, PR3 0RY

Abstract:

Introduction – On hard surfaces shoes increase the propensity for slipping because steel has a smaller coefficient of friction than hoof. The use of traction devices have been shown to increase jarring within the joints of the equine leg due a decrease in hoof braking time.

Study Design – For this pilot study quantitative research was chosen as it involved a comparison between three experimental sets of data.

Aims/Objectives – The objective of this study was to compare horizontal deceleration times of feet in a group of horses shod in a riding style to the national occupational standards for farriery (Lantra 2010). The aim of this study was to investigate if the placement of traction devices within the caudal third of the shoe made any difference to the horizontal deceleration of the hoof.

Hypothesis – The hypothesis for this study was that the exact placement of pins, acting astraction devices, within the caudal third of a horse shoe makes no difference to the horizontal deceleration time.

Materials/Methods – Five horses with good conformation were selected from a pool of twenty working horses, the selection criteria chosen was that all horses were of similar weight and height. Each horse was trimmed using a repeatable trimming protocol and shod to a riding style. A purpose built calibration frame was inserted between the lateral branch of the shoe. Then each horse was walked five times in a straight line past a purpose built video capture frame placed 4.30m away from a high speed video camera set to 125 frames per second. A pass was deemed acceptable when both first ground contact and unrollement occurred within the confines of the video capture frame. The process was subsequently repeated for each foot at each subsequent pin placement.

Results – There was a significant difference between no traction devices and traction devices placed at 5mm from the heel. There were no significant differences between no traction devices and traction devices placed at 20% of the bearing border shoe length. There were no significant differences between any traction devices and traction devices placed at 5mm or 20% of the shoe length. There was a significant difference between pins placed at 5mm and those placed at 20%. There was no difference in deceleration time between front and hind feet.

Conclusion – There is a necessity to use traction devices within the caudal third of the shoe to reduce excessive slip whilst maintaining sufficient traction for stability of the foot whilst it in contact with the ground substrate. The results of this study indicated that using tractiondevices placed 5mm palmardorsal of the heel significantly increased traction and decreases horizontal deceleration time.

Significance – The placement of the traction devices placed 5mm palmardorsal of the heel may cause a concomitant increase in the requirement of energy dissipation of kinetic forces within the limb thus increasing the risk of impact associated jarring injuries, From observations of the results the placement of traction devices at 20% the bearing border shoe length may be the correct placement of the traction devices. They increased traction but the amount is not significant in comparison to shoes without traction devices. Further research is needed in this field.

Author: Caldwell M.N.

1 School of Veterinary Nursing and Farriery Science, Myerscough College, University of Central Lancashire, Bilsborrow, Preston, Lancashire, UK, PR3 0RY

2 Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston, Cheshire, UK, CH64 7TE.

Keywords: Farriery; hoof balance; geometric proportions; trimming; horseshoe; footing

Abstract:
The stance comprises a number of phases – including impact, support, and rollover —
among which the mechanical loading of the leg varies considerably. Loading in each phase
is affected by the immediate action of the horse and by the type of shoe and the footing. In
this review I will survey the important mechanical features of each phase of the stance and
indicate (or speculate upon in many cases) the effects of different actions, shoes and
surfaces in the loading. Variability of loading within stances and among their phases
underlie the causes of acute and chronic mechanical injuries to the bony and soft tissues of
the limb.
Take home message: Understanding the mechanical effects of discipline- specific actions has the potential to lead to an understanding of causes of specific injuries. At this point in time, we are early in the process of collating the information necessary to reach such understanding: describing how the limb is loaded, and what causes that loading to vary.

 

Author: Hircock P. BSc (Hons) AWCF¹ and Caldwell M.N. MPhill; FWCF¹ ²

¹School of Veterinary Nursing and Farriery Science, Myerscough College, University of Central Lancashire, Bilsborrow, Preston, Lancashire, UK, PR3 0RY

²Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston, Cheshire, UK, CH64 7TE.

Abstract:
introduzione
Equine laminitis is a common problem within the farriery industry Stewart clogs and hoof casts are often used as a treatment method for limiting the biomechanical effects of strain, yet few locomotive in vivo studies have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of  hese techniques, quantitative understanding will facilitate farriers in the management of this disease

Study design A pilot, quantitative, experimental study.

Hypothesis The hypothesis for this study was that the application of Stewart clogs will alter the magnitude and orientations of the principal strain on the stratum medium of the hoof capsule in type I founder horses, with a further alteration of strain with the appliance of a hoof cast.

Aim To devise a methodology of positioning and applying electrical encapsulated rosette strain gauges to a equine hoof wall, to test the hypothesis by comparing strain recordings.

Methods and materials 5 electrical rosette strain gauges were placed around the circumference of the hoof wall of an equine, with type I founder. Strain values were recorded at a walk, in a straight line and a semicircle, 3 treatments; Were applied barefoot, with the clog and the clog combined with a cast. The mean values from the strain gauge data were recorded in Catman, then tabulated and the parameters investigated were statistically analysed using software Minitab 16 © and Microsoft excel ©.

Result When adjusted post hoc there were significant differences between treatment 1, bare foot and treatment 2, clog and between treatment 2, clog and treatment 3 cast p<0.001 for both. There was no difference in breakover time between bare foot and cast. There was no statistical difference between total strain values between treatments.

Conclusion This study established that strain gauge experimental stress analysis system Quantum MX1615 is capable of collecting and analysing the hoof wall deformation system within an in vitro environment and that individual peaks and troughs of strain magnitude could be evaluated between; barefoot, clog, hoof cast and direction.

Clinical relevance The significant differences between treatments and the bare foot application demonstrate considerable lower levels of compressive strain and a more uniform distribution of tensile strain around the dorsal hoof wall following the application of the clog and cast. The suggestion is that early application at the acute stage may be of benefit by reducing the degree of laminal degradation thus reducing recovery times. Clearly further research is necessary to test this hypothesis.

Author: Hines J, Kissick K, Allan L, and Caldwell M.N.

School of Veterinary Nursing and Farriery Science, Myerscough College, University of Central Lancashire, Bilsborrow, Preston, Lancashire, UK, PR3 0RY

Abstract:

introduzione. Digital hyperextension conformation seems to be a term used to incorporate many severities of the condition. The condition is usually a defect of the foal that affects both hind limbs. According to Wilsher (2012), a survey illustrated that of 668 foals that died due to complications at birth, flexural deformity was the most common congenital abnormality diagnosed. To this researcher’s knowledge there is currently no scientific protocol available to identify digital hyperextension ‘flaccid tendons’ in foals and no evidence based rationale for its early management. Professionals must therefore rely largely on clinical experience (Santschi 2006).

Study design. A pilot comparative study, consisting of collecting and comparing measurement data between 2 groups of subjects with conformational differences.

Aims and Hypothesis To collect quantitative evidence and compare the body segment lengths to test the hypothesis. The hypothesis was to establish if the tibia is longer in a foal that demonstrates the digital hyperextension conformation.

Materials and methods. 16 foals divided into 2 study groups of 8 were used in the study. The groups were separated into Group 1, digital hyperextension foals and Group 2, nondigital hyperextension foals. All of the foals were under 1 week of age and all were warm bloods. A standardised measuring stick was used to measure body segment lengths of all subjects in cm. The data was then entered into a data sheet (Fig 3.2). The data was then subsequently entered into a spread sheet using Microsoft Excel 2010Ò and then transferred to Minitab 16© for statistical analysis. Significance was tested at p<0.05.

Results. The results were analysed using a paired t test and Pearson correlations ANOVA. It was found that there was a significant difference in gaskin length between both groups, mean – 2.4cm ± 0.9 cm p=0.020. The results also showed a significant difference between body lengths of both groups, mean group 1, 1.5cm ± 0.6cm and group 2, 2.3cm ± 0.8cm p=0.016. There was also significant differences between the forearm lengths of both groups, group 1 (DHS) mean – .63 cm ± 0.88cm p=0.013.

Conclusion. Whilst from this study it cannot be concluded that muscle/tendon weaknesses are not critical factors, what has been highlighted is that skeletal development, particularly body size in relationship to the radius and tibia, are critical factors of development of the pathological pathway.

Significance. This study demonstrated that there could be other reasons for a foal exhibiting a hyper extended conformation and this may lead to more accurate treatment plans that minimise the need for euthanasia. The continuation of measurements over time could be implemented to create a baseline for foal conformation, and build a foal development database.

it_ITItalian
Torna su

Aggiungi qui il testo del titolo

Aggiungi qui il testo del titolo